Hydrologic drainage is generally poor, the soil compacting effects of glaciation being one of the many causes. Each is home to rock of different ages, types and formation characteristics, as well as different mineral deposits. Coordinates: 52°00′N 71°00′W / 52.000°N 71.000°W / 52.000; -71.000. North of this region, the Superior Province is one of Canada’s most important sources of metals, including deposits of copper, gold, iron and silver. The Shield was originally an area of very large, very tall mountains (about 12,000 m or 39,000 ft)[10] with much volcanic activity, but over hundreds of millions of years, the area has been eroded to its current topographic appearance of relatively low relief. Peterson Field Guide to Geology of Eastern North America by Roberts, David & Roger Tory Peterson. , Ontario, in 1903. The boreal forest area gives way to the Eastern Canadian Shield taiga that covers northern Quebec and most of Labrador. The North American craton is the bedrock forming the heart of the North American continent and the Canadian Shield is the largest exposed part of the craton's bedrock. Canadian Shield: Definition. Canadian GeographicWatch aerial footage of the Canadian Shield via Canadian Geographic. The Canadian Shield’s most notable physical features are thousands of small lakes, thin layers of soil and rolling hills. It is filled with substantial deposits of nickel, gold, silver, and copper. Each is home to rock of different ages, types and formation characteristics, as well as different mineral deposits. The current surface expression of the Shield is one of very thin soil lying on top of the bedrock, with many bare outcrops. 5 Figure 1.1: Choose the longer period of time ____ From Columbus to the founding of Virginia . Canadian Shield: Definition. The mountains of the Canadian Shield were subsequently eroded by weather such as wind and rain. New World Beginnings (33,000 BCE-1769 CE) The Shaping of North America: ~Canadian Shield: A … Deciduous trees include red and mountain maple; white and paper birch; trembling aspen; black ash; and balsam poplar. (G�ݙN T� word/document.xml�}َ�J��� �B]`0��V�v��v�������Wq����e����L�TU��r�>vo>E�%2�I��/U�� Because the Shield was formed through a series of orogenies, it was once a mountainous region. islands in the south Pacific known for their spices. Each belt probably grew by the coalescence of accumulations erupted from numerous vents, making the tally of volcanoes reach the hundreds. While gold mines still operate near Kirkland Lake and Timmins, there are no longer any active mines in Colbalt or Rouyn-Noranda — a reality not uncommon for early mining towns. [1] The shield extends into the United States as the Adirondack Mountains (connected by the Frontenac Axis) and the Superior Upland. The Shield can be divided into seven geologically distinct regions sometimes referred to as provinces. This is one of the largest-known meteorite impact craters on Earth. Canada’s largest iron ore deposit, however, is known as the Labrador Trough or New Québec Orogen, and runs in a strip through northeastern Québec and western Labrador. the largest-known meteorite impact craters on Earth, "Metallogeny and Tectonic Evolution of the Trans-Hudson Orogen", Alberta Heritage - Alberta Online Encyclopedia, 3-D Magnetic Imaging using Conjugate Gradients: Temagami anomaly, Report on the 2007 Diamond Drilling Program, McClarty Lake Project, Manitoba: The Pas Mining District NTS 63-K-08; UTM ZONE 14 N 415938 E, 6038968 N; 54° 29′ 28″ N 100° 17′ 52″ W, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Canadian_Shield&oldid=985882221, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 October 2020, at 14:30. In northeastern Quebec, the giant Manicouagan Reservoir is the site of an extensive hydroelectric project (Manic-cinq, or Manic-5). The high pressures and temperatures at those depths provided ideal conditions for mineralization. Similarly, the Shield also contains major uranium deposits, found around Great Bear Lake in the Northwest Territories, in northern Saskatchewan, and at Elliot Lake, Ontario. Forests are not as dense in the north. The Shield can be divided into seven geologically distinct regions sometimes referred to as provinces. Throughout the Shield there are many mining towns extracting these minerals. The Canadian Shield once had jagged peaks, higher than any of today's mountains, but millions of years of erosion have changed these mountains to rolling hills.[5]. Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionary 3I�(�p����zf�G���6��;���fjh�~��j3������?�\���f�� �0�/c�Ý�e�=��cj�>p�$J#+{�GY���P%�����I��i The kimberlite eruptions then bring the diamonds from over 150 kilometres (93 mi) depth to the surface. Learning from Indigenous people, coureurs de bois, voyageurs and explorers used the birchbark canoe to travel and trade along the Shield’s many waterways. These weathering processes were interrupted by a number of ice ages occurring over the last 2.5 million years. With the exception of the Canadian Shield, the rocks of the North American Craton are buried deep within the continent and covered by soil and other material. Term.

Mining began in the region in the mid-19th century and was key to Canada’s economic development. Kimberlites — formations where diamonds can be located — are scattered throughout the Shield, with the largest deposit located near Lac de Gras, Northwest Territories, about 300 km northeast of Yellowknife. [citation needed] It has some of the oldest (extinct) volcanoes on the planet. Common coniferous trees include white and black spruce; jack, red, white and eastern white pine; balsam fir; tamarack; eastern hemlock; and eastern red cedar. Glossary definition – Canadian Shield _____ Pg. The Sturgeon Lake Caldera in Kenora District, Ontario, is one of the world's best preserved mineralized Neoarchean caldera complexes, which is 2.7 billion years old. [15], The Canadian Shield is one of the world's richest areas in terms of mineral ores. allowed government to allocated Indians to colonists for Christianization.

Mining began in the region in the mid-19th century and was key to Canada’s economic development. The Canadian Shield is rich in natural resources, including minerals, forests and freshwater. [14] In the case of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), the Shield area contains many of their denning locations, such as the Wapusk National Park. Many mammals such as caribou, white-tailed deer, moose, wolves, wolverines, weasels, mink, otters, grizzly bear, polar bears and black bears are present. . While gold mines still operate near Kirkland Lake and Timmins, there are no longer any active mines in Colbalt or Rouyn-Noranda — a reality not uncommon for early mining towns.

Comparable to sandpaper on wood, these forces slowly wore down the mountains, so that by about 800 million years ago, the low-relief surface of the Shield had been created. As Europeans began to settle and colonize the country, beavers found in the Shield region became a source for the fur trade (see also Exploration). Other birds include boreal. Atlas of CanadaFind maps of the Canadian Shield as well as many other parts of Canada. Other evidence of past glacial structures include striations (lines scraped into rocks) and, ecosystem.

This suggests it could be a second metal-rich impact crater.[16]. The Canadian Shield is rich in natural resources, including minerals, forests and freshwater. During this glaciation, the Shield was covered by the Laurentide Ice Sheet, a giant expanse of ice as much as 3 km thick. Later, beginning in the mid-1800s, railway construction meant blasting through Canadian Shield rock, exposing valuable minerals in the process. View APUSH Chapter 1 Notes.pdf from HISTORY J101 at Westview High School. The lowlands of the Canadian Shield have a very dense soil that is not suitable for forestation; it also contains many marshes and bogs (muskegs). The northeastern portion, however, became tilted up so that, in northern Labrador and Baffin Island, the land rises to more than 1,500 metres (5,000 feet) above sea level. Glaciation has left the area only a thin layer of soil, through which the composition of igneous rock resulting from long volcanic history is frequently visible. It covers much of Greenland, all of Labrador and the Great Northern Peninsula of Newfoundland, most of Quebec north of the St. Lawrence River, much of Ontario including northern sections of the Ontario Peninsula, the Adirondack Mountains[7] of New York, the northernmost part of Lower Michigan and all of Upper Michigan, northern Wisconsin, northeastern Minnesota, the central and northern portions of Manitoba away from Hudson Bay, northern Saskatchewan, a small portion of northeastern Alberta,[8] mainland Northwest Territories to the east of a line extended north from the Saskatchewan-Alberta border, most of Nunavut's mainland and, of its Arctic Archipelago, Baffin Island and significant bands through Somerset, Southampton, Devon and Ellesmere islands. They are the Nain, Grenville, Southern, Superior, Churchill, Slave and Bear provinces. In the case of the Grenville Mountains, it’s estimated that tens of kilometres of rock may have been worn down. North of the boreal forest is the Arctic tundra ecozone, characterized by low-growing vegetation and few to no trees. One of the largest of these mountain-making events was the Grenville Orogeny. In addition to fish, lakes are often spotted with a mix of waterfowl including wood, and American black ducks. [9] The multitude of rivers and lakes in the entire region is caused by the watersheds of the area being so young and in a state of sorting themselves out with the added effect of post-glacial rebound. Term. The Ekati and Diavik mines are actively mining kimberlite diamonds. While the bare rock, thin soils, muskeg and insects of the Shield made living there difficult, the development of resource-based industries, such as mining and forestry, promoted increased settlement. The town prospered during the silver rush of the early 20th century, before going into decline in the 1920s. Lakes are largely the result of glacial erosion during the last ice age. [citation needed]. The Bear province includes deposits of copper and, , while the Slave province is being explored and mined for. The Canadian Shield refers to the exposed portion of the continental crust underlying the majority of North America. Due to its numerous rivers, the Canadian Shield region produces a significant amount of hydroelectricity. Other evidence of past glacial structures include striations (lines scraped into rocks) and drumlins (long hills of glacial sediment). The Canadian Shield is a collage of Archean plates and accreted juvenile arc terranes and sedimentary basins of the Proterozoic Eon that were progressively amalgamated during the interval 2.45–1.24 Ga, with the most substantial growth period occurring during the Trans-Hudson orogeny, between ca. The metamorphic base rocks are mostly from the Precambrian (between 4.5 billion and 540 million years ago) and have been repeatedly uplifted and eroded. The kimberlite pipes in which the diamonds are found are closely associated with cratons, which provide the deep lithospheric mantle required to stabilize diamond as a mineral. The Canadian Shield is dominated by the boreal forest ecosystem. Finally, the Nain province is the smallest of the seven regions, and is not a major mineral producer.

Animals in the Arctic portion of the Shield include polar bears, Arctic fox, Arctic hares, snowy owls and rock ptarmigan.

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