The tone of this simile in the larger context has been puzzling. The major literary device of book 2 is irony, the constant exploitation of the gap between reality and illusion. At almost every opportunity similes reinforce the scene, which is in every way the essential statement of the epic’s theme—the unavoidable, inevitable battle between Achilles and Hector, the perfected hero versus the humane hero. and Paris himself proposes it here. All five similes in this section emphasize the stalemate between Greek and Trojan warriors. First Hermes is given sandals in typological preparation lines for gods: Then there is a brief listing of the god’s itinerary, a customary device for describing such journeys. Similes closely accompany this movement. See Page 1959:315; Tsagarakis 1969; West 1969; Thiel 1982:33–50. 7. For the clearest discussion of the close relationships between books 12 and 13 see Stanley 1993:136–52. B. Carter and S. P. Morris. Lonsdale 1990:103–28 expands upon Fraenkel’s work in showing that there is a greater structure to a separate story of animals and men than the simple simileme. 86–87. At the beginning of the second section Hector enters the battle with four juxtaposed similes and a list of those he kills; but this lavish introduction collapses as Homer fails to develop a formal and glorious aristeia. 84. See also Stanley 1993:166–74. 31. Brown has shown how addresses can be modified to convey special meaning. The clear demonstration that the Trojans are forcing the Greeks back to the ships, but only with the divine force temporarily given to them by Zeus. Hermes 117:403–12. Wiener Studien 111:45–66. 117. 1999. Fraenkel 1921:62 and Baltes 1983:40 (including n28) see this simile as a unique expansion of the simileme. The interlinkages between the four incidents in section 3 (283–493) are signs of careful structure. The Homeric simile is easily recognized. a series of five extended similes emphasizes important moments in the complicated battle around Patroclus’ body just before his death is reported to Achilles.

Hector accepts this advice, and the other Trojans follow him.

Questions for Book III: There are continual disagreements among suitors about the appropriateness of their behavior—most strikingly in Amphinomus’ objection to their plan to kill Telemachus and the anonymous negative.

But does not one also feel pity for them? Such language is consistently used in this book to describe the river: 59. At 770 and 778 the ease of Hera and Athena’s journey to the battlefield is underlined. As a result, once Patroclus reinforces feelings that had already been awakened in Achilles, the hero is driven to satisfy his opposed yearnings through a stratagem. Nimis 1987:18–19, drawing on Riffaterre 1978. This is the one of the rare similes in which the action (vomiting the blood and gore of their prey) has completely passed by the narrative moment (men entering battle); cf. 75. When one is confronted with a situation that is familiar, one is more likely to put aside contemplating the topic and simply inject those known feelings.

The electronic version of this book was made possible by the University Press of New England and the Dartmouth College Library.

Homer Beside Himself: Paranarratives in the Iliad. Homeric epic was a joint creation of a trained poet and an experienced audience, in which the skill of the poet was judged not on the basis of free invention but rather on the effectiveness of his choices from among known alternatives.46. Oxford.

The books are joined closely when the narrative moves directly from book 21 to book 22 as Achilles continues his pursuit of Apollo/Agenor. ———. 1979. ———. Even the heroic code, with all its powerful sanctions, cannot overwhelm the human and reasoning side of Hector; he has known both victory and defeat, and he may sense the hopelessness of confronting a warrior who wears immortal armor. Along with 3.222 and 19.357, there are only four similes in which the prime subject matter is snow; together these similes suggest a model for the simileme.

1992 on 468–73 for a more realistic assessment of the problems in this passage. 55; Rubin 1995:39–64, and Minchin 2001a and 2001b. Combellack, F. M. 1959.

Not all immortals receive such treatment, even though they appear constantly throughout this book. There is no doubt that Diomedes is presented as a major warrior and an appropriate member of the inner council of the Greeks; but he is only one of the Iliad’s many models for a heroic fighter.

Then the wound begins to draw down his strength.

70. The major problem of book 11 is maintaining a clear direction in a narrative that threatens to break apart. See 16.259 and 12.167; see also Scott 1974:74. The Discovery of the Mind. Even though the Gods have betrayed Hector, his death is still considered as heroic because it demonstrates how he has matured through the preceding books and is willing to suffer through the consequences of his actions. The second chapter will analyze the poet’s and audience’s inheritance from previous performances of epic in order to determine the choices available to Homer in shaping his similes to support the narrative. As Achilles sinks to an ugly level of inhumanity in his conduct of battle, scenes of nature at peace add a poetic background that forces the audience to measure his actions against the more normal day-to-day world. The two champions are described in a series of similes with two actors: at 162 they are like racehorses contending for a prize in funeral games;87 at 189 Hector is like a deer fleeing a hunting dog; and at 262 he is cast as a man or a lamb opposed by a lion or a wolf. I can find no good parallels to this type of juxtaposition; most joined similes reinforce the surrounding passage.

Ino, who lends Odysseus her veil and watches over him throughout the storm, receives two short bird similes (337 and 353).

Iliad 16.428, Ody. In Homer: Beyond Oral Poetry, edited by J. M. Bremer, I. J. F. de Jong, and J. Kalff.

Thus the Odyssey story opens with a strong parallel to the Iliad. Why do you think Homer gives us such a sour picture of these

1982. 23.333), and continuously interrelated series of similes over broad spans of the narrative. Paris and Helen together are a pretty grim vision.

He rides on a plank from the ruined raft like a man who rides a, All these more peaceful similes accompany potentially dangerous narrative situations; only the similes reveal that all is under the control of the gods who guide and protect the hero. This simile is packed with phrases that exalt strength, beauty and gracefulness, but little reference to battle prowess, thus presenting Paris as nothing more than a figure-head. It is clear that both the poet and his audience share the inheritance from the tradition. Three similes (two of which are violent and warlike in tone) are placed at the beginning of the unit to characterize the two warriors as they confront each other (428, 482, and 487). Lions do have a life in the wild where they are hunted by men and stalked by other beasts; alternatively, they attack farmyards and prey upon herds—and these scenes are the lion’s only activities in the simileme. 86. The focused skill of Odysseus is directly contrasted to the inept intrigues of the suitors in the opening section.



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