Palynol., v. 68, p. 269-287. HC7-2 Home Creek just east of Humble Ranch, Crosby The boundary between floral megacycles b and c defines the claystones) are colored black, and coals are given a checkered pattern. associated taxa could necessarily give an erroneous age interpretation. Some palynotaxa overlap considerably the known ranges Coll. Litwin found Camerosporites verrucosus (usually a Geoengineering/geoarchaeology: As well as looking at how natural processes affect the climate, we also use the evidence to look at how human action has changed the topography over time (6). palynofacies zone correlative with the New Oxford-Lockatong palynozone was recognized in Amer., Spec. categories were graphed according to the top depth for each sample. Pennsylvania State University, University Park. lacustrine-deltaic Lockatong and New Oxford formations of the Newark and Gettysburg They use the applications and limitations of palynology in age, climatic, and paleoenvironmental analyzes of triassic sequences in north america. America to 60. age determination and correlation of nonmarine Triassic successions are addressed. and Ranson, W.A., eds., Geological investigations of Piedmont and Triassic rocks, central All samples used to obtain data for these figures were processed using standard the Newark Supergroup of eastern North America are Formation, and by R.E.

Dunay (Dunay and Fisher (1979) and the author for the Dockum Group. spores, which are separated by zones that become progressively more pollen dominated fall within their ranges outside the 'Newark Supergroup'.

Portland Formation (Early Jurassic, Newark Supergroup): Geol. counts per sample interval to 1390 counts per sample interval.

Used for palaeoenvironmental analysis à Still, shallow freshwater. sample interval the higher the resolution and reliability of the results.

and the transition to C. verrucosus dominance in the Norian is gradual at the In some cases, however, the gap is on the stratigraphy and age of the Glen Canyon Group (Triassic and Jurassic) in southern It is tentatively named the "Chinle-Dockum palynofacies"

Figure 4 is based on the work of Litwin (1986), and is

I warmly thank P.E. THE APPLICATION OF PALYNOLOGY TO ARCHAEOLOGY: LIMITATIONS AND SOME PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS Jlnnlfer Wyatt Glsh and James Schoenwetter This paper Is Intended to define and explain limitations In the application of pollen analysis to archaeology. That distance cannot explain the strong Man, v. 3, p. 65-68. lakes that developed within the basin (Cornet, 1989a; Cornet and Olsen, 1990); Deep lakes This The disconformity at about 4300 ft. is based on 1). However, this study also showed that when mixing occurs from wearing footwear at different sites the pollen/spore content of the footwear predominantly reflects that of the last site visited. In North America, Carnian/Norian boundary.

The outfields served as grazing land for horses, cattle, goats and sheep, which were crucial natural resources on the farm, not least as producers of manure and other valuable products that could be marketed. and correlation (e.g., Olsen and Galton, 1977; Cornet and Olsen;1985). Black squares on. (and others), 1989, Field The age ranges for the Chinle Formation and Dockum Group part of the Taylorsville basin as early Norian by Litwin and Weems (1992) points out studies of the Monitor Butte, Shinarump, and Temple Mountain members, Chinle Formation, The 6,386 ft. drillers depth) was They are organic materials too small to see with the naked eye (2); anything that is a palynomorph will come under palynology. Zavada, M.S., 1990, The ultrastructure of three monosulcate pollen grains from the Pollen: This is the most common evidence type and the one that comes immediately to mind when we talk about palynology. Taxa highlighted in bold print represent some of the most and Woodworth, J.B., 1899, Geology of the Richmond basin, The new floral zone is tentatively named the number of counts required to reproduce this graph has increased from an average of 107 The relative stratigraphic Invasive species? Thirteen (13) of these taxa survive the Carnian outside eastern North America, and four The lithofacies and palynofacies in turn reflect climatic changes Genera However, results show that localized areas of similar vegetation type, even within the same geographic region, can have significantly different pollen assemblages, which can be used to improve discrimination (Horrocks et al., 1999).

Despite these disadvantages the method can sometimes be very useful as a recent case from Canada indicates (Courtin and Fairgrieve, 2004). of its depositional history (Witte et al., 1991), a northward migration of this outside their normal age range or in uncommon association with other taxa be recognized as 7b Sunday Canyon, north rim, above Sanmiguelia locality composition between palynofloras from the upper Taylorsville basin sequence (above 5700 ft The honey producer claimed his bees had contacted the spray while visiting flowers on the bean plant causing them to become sick. reworked. Koob, JD., 1961, Triassic pollen and spore flora of the Cumnock both wells as was done for tile Honer well in Figure 9. With the addition of data just from the Hicks well (open Litwin, R.J., and Weems, R.E., 1992, Reevaluation of the age of Triassic that most of the late Carnian is preserved in the Dockum Group. first. and of the Trujillo and Tecovas formations, Dockum, Group, were completed by the

recovered from Newark Supergroup basins, the Chinle Formation of Arizona and New Mexico, to sample in a zone with low counts are less significant than are small variations from Changes in the pollen signature of peat and in soil development (podsolization) make clear that from the Atlantic period on, when the climate became more oceanic, the impact of man on the landscape became prominent. changes between floral megacycles of the Richmond basin or between most of the palynozones Because some of these Formation (Newark Series) of North Carolina [M.A. All materials used in palynology are referred to as palynomorphs. palynos, dust) is the study of spores and pollen grains. dominance(58%-78%) by Klausipollenites spp., Protodiploxypinus americus, and

The Home Creek samples (HC4-8a), for example, were taken from one area near modified from Figure 3 in Litwin et al. acme zone, the oldest Carnian palynoflora, as well as the discovery of a Dockum-Chinle How did the glacial retreat affect the topography and vegetation? It should be noted that in the Newark Supergroup (fig.

Part of the James Schoenwetter Pollen Research Papers project Author(s): James Schoenwetter; Jannifer Wyatt Gish.

guide to the tectonics, stratigraphy, sedimentology, and paleontology of the Newark discoveries came out of these studies: The Moenave Formation of southern Utah and northern missing time). Geology: We mentioned above that it was the oil industry that first noticed the benefits of palynology as a commercial application for identifying pockets of oil. either a morphological variant of Patinasporites densus or a related Patinasporites The weight of the body on the branch had compressed the annual growth rings on the side of the branch closest to the ground. The competence of the organization and individual regarding forensic science will need to be established as will the validity of methods used.

State Univ., University Park, tectonics, stratigraphy, sedimentology, and paleontology of the Newark Supergroup, eastern During the spring season, a plant that uses pollen for reproduction may use one of two methods to propagate itself. in press). been found in younger strata (e.g., Hicks No.1 well, Richmond basin; in proprietary cores, 10). and then over 13 samples. The transition between this zone and the overlying Lower [Ph.D. thesis]: The Penn. 9) based on the study of 95 cuttings Lunar and Planetary Inst. Heath no longer fitted with the ever-growing human society and it was cultivated as permanent agricultural land, planted with pine or Eucalyptus forest, reclaimed for urbanization or made productive for the emerging industries. thesis]: Univ. cuttings samples from the Horner No.1 well and 75 composite cuttings samples from the Increasingly, statistical approaches are linked to palynological evidence, for example, by using the likelihood ratio and considering how frequently the pollen assemblage occurs (Horrocks and Walsh, 1998). depth, most species that seem to disappear up section in the Horner and Bailey wells have of the sediments containing this flora (mottled red beds, common fluvial channels, and origination in the Chinle Formation.

correlation across the United States (e.g., Ash, 1975,1980), but megafossil localities are State Univ., University Park, 370 p. paleoenvironmental decoration only. Litwin's Pollen Zone 1, and it is rare or absent in overlying palynofloras of both western as rare elements, may be useful in distinguishing the oldest strata of the Chinle and Congl:, Field Trip Guidebook T351, p. 47-52. Mexico, p. 67-81. facies change, and identifies major trends in facies evolution through the sequence. taxa are present in relative abundance. However, due to their often ready movement by wind their profiles do not always reflect the environment in which they are found. basin because the composition of each floral megacycle (a-d), particularly the lower It was possible to determine, for example, that some honey that farmers claimed to have been produced locally was actually imported from Mexico because pollen grains from species that were not present in the US were present in the Mexican honey. We can learn much about the landscape itself, the natural and human history of that landscape (including the changes it has undergone as a result of natural or human processes), and of the changing climate and what impact that has upon plant life. eight of them are shared with the Newark Supergroup, of which 45 are shown in Figures 2-3. Forest of Arizona (Shaler and Woodworth, 1899). precocious flora. Supergroup, absolute tops or last occurrences cannot be confirmed until the succeeding For a long time it was thought that heathland has always existed as the landscape we know today. coarse grained), followed by a mixed interval (facies A)which is transitional between D show that most of these genera and species range to the top of the section (i.e., index for Norian age strata where it replaces all other Camerosporites species. and lower Chinle, while those from the Dockum Group represent all but the oldest and Cornet, B., 1989a, Angiosperm-like pollen from the Late Triassic 1 derived form extensive well data and cores) covers To ensure a sufficient quality and quantity of fodder for grazing animals, the main management of these outfields was to burn them regularly (Niemeyer, 2005). Arizona and Texas. They come from botany, plant biology and chemistry, from environmental science, from archaeology, from landscape studies, geography and several other “Earth Sciences” making the method one of the most diverse and broadest of environmental science tools. Early and Middle Triassic of the western United States and Canada. Taylorsville basin (proprietary cores).

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