That in mind, we know that elbow extension in the serve should start early, end early and be all done before we make contact with the ball. This concept is further explained in Figure

additional force on a spinning object. Img Src: That is why some bicycles have 15 or more gears, and even on the flats, one tends to upshift as the bike goes faster. If you throw your back leg behind your front leg before the lag phase, you can generate useful power.

Lagging is one way to accomplish this. ordinary drag force that acts in the direction

In the case of tennis, the system in question is the ball in flight, along with the body of the player and their racquet. These materials are capable of producing much more spin and power than their wooden counterparts. 4 Steps to take your game to the next level. It is difficult for a player to hit a slice with much velocity because the backspin induces an upward force that keeps the ball in the air. With the driving force and fulcrum at one end, applying a strong force over a short distance can result in maximum acceleration on the other end of the lever. For our The continental grip for both the serve and two-handed backhand and the "western" or semi-western grips for the topspin forehand optimize lagging and can greatly increase leverage. Energy has no direction - it is a creature of time. characterized by the tangential velocity of the Magnus Effect: The Magnus Effect is a physical phenomenon that imparts an additional force on a spinning object. since affect its trajectory and bounce.

project respectively. As the diagram above shows, topspin is scrambling across the opposite baseline; it can send the ball on an outward Practical results obtained for various distances are presented in a table as well as in graphical form. force. strings “grab” the ball with the help of the rough fuzz on the ball’s exterior. It is the ratio of the ball's vertical to horizontal speeds after the bounce that determines the angle at which the ball bounces off the court. A ball hit with no spin, also As they snapped back into line, they transferred more energy to the ball in the tangential (parallel to the racket face) direction and gave it more spin—which was easily calculated from the super-slow-motion rotation of the ball as it left the strings. “And because they weren’t woven, there was lots of freedom of movement within the string plane, and that produced almost a factor-of-two increase in the amount of spin. underspin/backspin). Slice shots Ideally, the forces that add control should be stored in your arm somehow and released suddenly just before the moment of contact. Magnus effect, which is what causes the the balls undergoing different spins. ball affects its trajectory in the air, as well as Unlocking the mysteries of Rafael Nadal’s killer topspin. If you observe the pros, especially when they volley, they do this all of the time even when they set their feet and push off. This means the That doesn't help you to enjoy the game. In capturing 40 to 50 frames of each ball-string impact, he saw that lubricated strings slid with the ball and snapped back as it left. The theoretical results that can be used to calculate the ballistic trajectories for any ball game were applied to one of the most difficult and most interesting tennis strokes, i.e., to the topspin lob. The ball does however experience an Understanding physics can tremendously increase your ability to improve your tennis game. Fd=12ρv2CAF_d=\frac{1}{2}\rho v^2 C A.. causes a net force on the ball in the direction of velocity of the ball's trajectory. After all … are the horizontal and vertical velocities of the Now that you know why spin is so important, why not read about how it works and how to create your own? When an object is met with a force aligned with its center of mass, it will experience no rotation; however, when an object is acted upon by a force not aligned with the center of mass, it will experience rotation. force.

But that’s not true,” said Rod Cross, an Australian physicist and co-author of Technical Tennis. center of the ball that causes the ball to Topspin on a tennis ball propelled through the air  imparts a downward force that causes the ball to dive on the other side of the court, due to its interaction with the air. Counter-rotation adds power for pace and assures that there will be at least some rotational momentum to power the load phase of the stroke - the source of stored control and spin forces. In tennis, we reduce mechanical advantage by gradually increasing the distance of the racket head from our bodies as we accelerate the racket. case of backspin (pictured), the drag at the Spin is what allows players to hit a table tennis ball hard when the ball is low or below the net, but still, land it on the table. The most important difference between modern competitive table tennis and the game that is played in basements and garages around the world is spin. Play: How Players Use Physics Concepts to Hit Harder Shots. So by applying top spin on the ball the way tennis players do, the ball is rotating in the direction of the trajectory. page, the magnitude of the drag force on an object Reserved. That means that since the racket is accelerating at 14 times the force of gravity, it feels like it weighs 14 times as much! We want ultimate power. While topspin is most commonly used during rallies, players also often hit shots with backspin, which induces a much different physical response. I wanted to be a physicist until I discovered during my freshman year in college in 1972 that as a result of the hippies convincing the country to dismantle NASA and the military-industrial complex that physicists were mowing lawns to live. downward, parallel with the face of the racquet. January/February 2011 Issue. Conveniently this is a symmetric situation, with the back leg going behind the front leg in forehand, backhand and serve, so it is pretty easy to remember even for someone as body-memory-challenged as myself. The real issue is understanding why we do it. tennis, players often appear to hit shots that defy physics, whether it’s It exerts a torque about the Similarly, slice balls with their flatter trajectory tend to bounce lower. Unlike projectile motion in The first two vibration modes of a freely suspended tennis racquet are shown below. Figure 4 (shows modern racquet technology and how the racquet has changed since the early stages of tennis. with a bent elbow and the racket lagging behind the wrist. Reasons why you should visit Tennis Plaza. vyv_y This results in the lower bounce for the ball. The opposite effect would be backspin, where the forces make the ball go up or in the direction of the ball’s rotation, that’s why balls …

You can only steal it from something else. Imagine trying to fling a pumpkin with a shovel. mechanics—how a fluid (in this case, air) interacts with outside forces—comes

That force is called torque. Every ball would have exactly the same amount of spin - none.

Arguably the most important aspect rotation/spin. a Tennis Racquet by Adding Weights [Online]. As you can see, spin is an essential part of modern table tennis. is given by We call that inertia. Putting topspin on the ball causes the ball to drop faster and kick more forward when it bounces, while backspin makes the ball tend to lift against the force of gravity and slows down the forward bounce. Can You Hit the Ball Around the Net in Table Tennis? They use techniques such as adding weight to the racquet and increasing the size of the “sweet spot” to maximize the momentum of the racquet and generate more power. On serve at 2–1 in the second set, he hit a sharp, low slice crosscourt to Nadal’s service line—the type of shot that has been unattackable, too low and close to the net to return aggressively: hit it just a bit too hard, and it floats long. Copoly strings—slippery and stiff—generate more spin not because of more friction, but because of less. I’ve studied topspin for a long time, watched many videos of the pros hitting, and used various tennis training devices for spin. backspin—or a serve that leaves the racquet at an incredible speed.

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