Chemist Heinrich Mückter, who was a known Nazi war criminal, was appointed to head the discovery programme based on his experience … Starfish are marine invertebrates.  The loss of parts of the body is achieved by the rapid softening of a special type of connective tissue in response to nervous signals.  Gas exchange also takes place through other gills known as papulae, which are thin-walled bulges on the aboral surface of the disc and arms. About 1,500 species of starfish occur on the seabed in all the world's oceans, from the tropics to frigid polar waters.  In other species, a male and female may come together and form a pair.
Some are thought to assist in defence, while others aid in feeding or in the removal of organisms attempting to settle on the starfish's surface. , Starfish may be preyed on by conspecifics, sea anemones, other starfish species, tritons, crabs, fish, gulls and sea otters. Square Biscuit Starfish is distinctively bright orange in color, which can grow up to 6 centimeters. Although some species can tolerate relatively low salinity, the lack of an osmoregulation system probably explains why starfish are not found in fresh water or even in many estuarine environments. Well according to Henry Rothschild, (no relation to the Rothschild family allegedly) the vaccine is known as. , Echinoderms first appeared in the fossil record in the Cambrian. In some species, mature females produce chemicals to attract sperm in the sea water.
According to Rothschild, the government “knowingly” injected black women with an epidural during childbirth the contained a birth defect-inducing vaccine called Terminar which it notes is “Spanish for terminate.” (This translations is technically true, but the verb is most often used in the context of finishing a task.). These serve a respiratory function.  Starfish are sometimes eaten in China, Japan and in Micronesia. The vessels form three rings: one around the mouth (the hyponeural haemal ring), another around the digestive system (the gastric ring) and the third near the aboral surface (the genital ring).  Organisms that dislike this disturbance are replaced by others better able to rapidly recolonise "clean" sediment.
A new variant on anti-vaccine paranoia emerged on 26 October 2016, when a dubious news site published an article linking a vaccine to what it described as a government effort to hurt black women. , Starfish sometimes have negative effects on ecosystems.  The sensory component receives input from the sensory organs while the motor nerves control the tube feet and musculature.  Asterina pectinifera, used as a model organism for this purpose, is resilient and easy to breed and maintain in the laboratory. What was that vaccine?  When a starfish finds itself upside down, two adjacent arms are bent backwards to provide support, the opposite arm is used to stamp the ground while the two remaining arms are raised on either side; finally the stamping arm is released as the starfish turns itself over and recovers its normal stance. Outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish have caused damage to coral reefs in Northeast Australia and French Polynesia. 1,738 points • 116 comments - Some 5-pointed starfish can be squared due to birth defects. , Georg Eberhard Rumpf's 1705 The Ambonese Curiosity Cabinet describes the tropical varieties of Stella Marina or Bintang Laut, "Sea Star", in Latin and Malay respectively, known in the waters around Ambon. Thalidomide was developed and first released by the German pharmaceutical company Chemie Grünenthal in 1953.  In certain species of starfish, the females brood their eggs – either by simply enveloping them or by holding them in specialised structures. , Starfish also have an unusual ability to expel foreign objects from their bodies, which makes them difficult to tag for research tracking purposes.
For example, Leptasterias hexactis broods a small number of large-yolked eggs. Phylogenetic data suggests that they may be a sister group, the Concentricycloidea, to the Neoasteroidea, or that the Velatida themselves may be a sister group. The phylogeny of the Asteroidea has been difficult to resolve, with visible (morphological) features proving inadequate, and the question of whether traditional taxa are clades in doubt. , Most species of starfish are gonochorous, there being separate male and female individuals. , The larvae of several species of starfish can reproduce asexually before they reach maturity. , There may also be papulae, thin-walled protrusions of the body cavity that reach through the body wall and extend into the surrounding water.
In addition, foraging by these migratory starfish creates diverse patches of organic matter, which may play a role in the distribution and abundance of organisms such as fish, crabs and sea urchins that feed on the sediment. It is linked through a stone canal, often lined with calcareous material, to a ring canal around the mouth opening.  This species has a unique ability to absorb seawater to keep itself cool when it is exposed to sunlight by a receding tide. S. australis was found to have removed most of a batch of transplanted mussels within two or three months of their placement, while in an area from which S. australis had been removed, the mussels increased in number dramatically, overwhelming the area and threatening biodiversity.
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